THE PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT Advantages of Portland Pozzolana Cement it is an eco-friendly cement as the material used in the manufacture are made of natural recycled waste. This is last stage where the whole assembly cooled is up to 150 to 200 degree Celsius. It was first produced by a mason Joseph Aspdin in England in 1924. Its 24 hours strength is nearly equal to that attained by ordinary portland cement after 3 days. What is a Ground Source Heat Pump? Clinker is usually in the form of greenish black or grey colored balls. IS 269–1967 specifies the method of testing and prescribes the limits: (a) Fineness: It is measured in terms of percentage of weight retained after sieving the cement through 90 micron sieve or by surface area of cement in square centimeters per gramme of cement. 5. The manufacture of Portland cement is a complex process and done in the following steps: grinding the raw materials, mixing them in certain proportions depending upon their purity and composition, and burning them to sintering in a kiln at a temperature of about 1350 to 1500 ⁰C. The name Portland cement was given by Joseph Aspdin in 1824 due to its similarity in colour and its quality when it hardens like … Locally available 20 and 10-mm sized aggregates from around the Rajkot city area were used as coarse aggregates. One of the most important is a large strength-cost ratio in many applications. In this part, the powdered limestone is mixed with the clay paste in proper proportion (75%=lime stone; clay=25%) Temperature is raised up to 800 degree Celsius. Table 1.4 shows the approximate oxide composition limits of ordinary Portland cement. This cement is composed of white-grey limestone found in the island of Portland, Dorset Portland Cement is caustic in nature, so it can cause chemical burns. The properties of the OPC were reported in Table 1, Table 2. Curing period of OPC is less than PPC and curing cost reduces. Kiln rotates at the rate of 1-2 revolution per minute. IS code recommends test with Le Chatelier mould for testing this property. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is the most widely used cement. Your email address will not be published. In this zone lime stone decomposes into lime and CO2. This chemical reaction with water is called "hydration". Then, hydraulic cement is passed to the kiln to produce clinker, which is subsequently cooled and pulverized. The specific gravity of coarse and fine aggregates was 2.71 and … Properties of "Ordinary Portland Cement Concrete" Concrete made with Portland cement is widely used as a construction material because of its many favorable characteristics. All Rights Reserved. Effects of Sugar on Physical Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement Paste and Concrete Akogu Elijah Abalaka Building Department, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria E-mail: Abstract Effects of sugar at concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.06, 0.08. Portland cement is categorized into eight subgroups according to the ASTM C150, namely normal … According to IS code specification weight retained on the sieve should not be more than 10 per cent. Another is that concrete, while plastic, may be cast in forms easily at ordinary temperatures to produce almost any desired shape. For larger spans jack arch floorings were used. The colour of cement should be uniform. 1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC grade 53) manufactured by the Ultratech cement company from Gujarat, having a specific gravity of 3.15 g/cm 3, was used. Portland stone is white grey limestone in island of Portland, Dorset. If we use ordinary Portland cement instead of low heat cement in such structures, Cracks will develop in such structures due to the great amount of heat liberated during setting and hardening. Here are the properties of ordinary portland cement. This is done usually in cylindrical ball or tube mills containing the charge of steel balls. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is mostly used for common structures and also for important civil works. It was developed from other types of hydraulic lime in England in the early 19th century by Joseph Aspdin, and usually originates from limestone. Addition of all these reactions gives the knowledge about how Ordinary Portland cement hardens and gains strength. Portland Cement is a fine powder that when mixed with water becomes the binding material that holds aggregates together in concrete. C4AF is comparatively inactive compound. Type V is used where sulfate resistance is important. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Also Read: Pros … Ordinary/Normal Portland cement is one of the most widely used type of Portland Cement. It is a fine powder, produced by heating limestone and clay minerals in a kiln to form clinker, … Composition Of Ordinary Portland Cement Specific Gravity: 3.10 to 3.15; Normal Consistency: 29% to 32%; Initial Setting Time: 65 min; Final Setting Time: 275 min; Fineness: 330 kg/sq.m; Soundness: 2.5mm; Density: 830 to 1600 kg/cubic meter; Types of Ordinary Portland Cement Fineness. 2 Cement should be free from lumps. Different temperature zones are as under: In this zone, temperature is kept at 500 degree Celsius & usually the moisture is removed & clay is broken into silica, aluminum oxide, iron oxide. Portland-limestone cement is engineered with a higher limestone content. • Fineness (specific area) of 43 Grade Cement = 225 m 2 /kg • 3 days compressive strength = 23 N/mm 2 • 7 days compressive strength = 33 N/mm 2 • 28 days compressive strength = 43 N/mm 2. properties of Ordinary Portland Cement used are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 respectively. Hence recommended where curing cost prohibitive.Disadvantages Sand from the banks of Aaji River near Rajkot was used as fine aggregate. The initial setting of OPC is faster than that of PPC. In Pakistan; cement production will go beyond 45 million tons per year in the next two years. This whole process in kiln usually covers 2 to 3 hours. Grade means mortar cube strength in N/mm2 after 28 days Lets know more about the Ordinary Portland Cement. The ordinary Portland cement (OPC) used was the P.O. Preparation of cement pastes and mortars: The Initial and final setting times of control as well as the cement samples, containing varying concentrations of molybdenum, were determined by following the methods as described in IS: 4031:1996. Manufacturing and Uses of Portland Cement. The name Portland cement was given by Joseph Aspdin in 1824 due to its similarity in colour and its quality when it hardens like Portland stone. Table 1.4. How does it Work? OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) 43 Grade Cement • The Cement, which has Compressive strength of 43 N/ mm 2 after the 28 days when tested, is known as 43-Grade Cement. Type IV Portland cement is generally known for its low heat of hydration. It generates great amount of heat. In terms of specific surface should not be less than 2250 cm2/gm. In olden days upper floors were made of timber floors or steel joist and stone slabs. He patented it as Portland cement. It is normally used for the reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, pavements, and where soil conditions are normal. The product which is obtained from the rotary kiln is known as the cement Clinker. The rotary kiln consists of large cylinders 8 to 15 feet in diameter & height of 300-500 feet. Calcium is usually derived from limestone, marl or chalk while silica, alumina and iron come from the sands, clays & iron ores. The Cement Clinker is then air cooled. Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), also called Strain Hardening Cement-based Composites (SHCC) or more popularly as bendable concrete, is an easily molded mortar-based composite reinforced with specially selected short random fibers, usually polymer fibers. In rotary kiln, slurry is passed through different zones of temperature. Assumptions for Flexure Theory and Bending of Beam, Determination of Aggregate Impact Value – Impact Test on Aggregates. Fineness, or particle size of portland cement affects rate of hydration, which is responsible for the rate of strength gain. Other raw materials may include shale, shells and industrial byproducts. Your email address will not be published. for 1+3, enter 4. Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout. The cement is manufactured by intimately mixing together calcareous and argillaceous and/or other silica, alumina or iron oxide bearing materials. Today, Ordinary Portland cement is the most widely used building material in the world with about 1.56 billion tones produced each year. and comparing them to ordinary Portland cement. It is prepared by crushing, milling, and mixing calcium, iron, silica, alumina, and sulfate sources with certain amounts. Advantages of ordinary portland cement: OPC has great resistance to cracking and shrinkage. Pozzolano consists of silica material which makes it cheap and hence reduces the cost of the cement making it economical to use. Wollastonite consists of 45.6% of CaO and 48% of ... Several cementitious mix proportions of ordinary portland cement, wollastonite, and microsilica were investigated for normal consistency, initial and final setting time of paste, and compressive strength of mortar. 2. It also generates heat. (Reduced heat of hydration, Refinement of pore structure, Reduced permeability) C3S hydrates early and develops strength in the first 28 days. The minimum strength specified is 16 N/mm2 after 3 days and 22 N/mm2 after 7 days of curing. Chemical Composition Of Portland Cement; Ordinary Portland Cement -Constituents, Properties, Types. Standard Test: AASHTO T 133 and ASTM C 188: Density of Hydraulic Cement. Physical properties of Ordinary Portland Cement : Cement should be tested for its following properties. Ordinary/Normal Portland cement is one of the most widely used type of Portland Cement. It has great resistance to cracking and shrinkage but has less resistance to chemical attacks. The fineness of cement was tested according to the China standard GB/T 1345-2005. Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (i) Chemical properties: Portland cement consists of the following chemical compounds: (a) Tricalcium silicate 3 CaO.SiO2 (C3S) 40%(b) Dicalcium silicate 2CaO.SiO2 (C2S) 30%(c) Tricalcium aluminate 3CaO.Al2O3 (C3A) 11%(d) Tetracalcium aluminate 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 (C3AF) 11% There may be small quantities of impurities present such as calcium … The chief chemical components of ordinary Portland cement are: Calcium, Silica, Alumina, Iron. There are five stages in manufacturing of cement by wet process: In this phase, soft raw materials are first crushed into suitable size. The cement is said to be unsound, if it exhibits volumetric instability after hardening. In India, about 70% of cement is of this category. These chemical reactions all involve the addition of water to the basic chemical compounds. Subscribe our youtube channel For latest civil engineering govt job updates,latest news, technology, information..Etc We need your support Your support is our energy. Those compounds and their role in hardening of cement are as under: It is used for general construction purposes where special properties are not required. It has mainly three grades. Raw materials for the manufacture of Portland cement are found in nearly all countries and cement plants operate all over the world. This cement has a very low (C 3 A) composition which accounts for its high sulfate resistance. It is very fine cement hence very good when used for plastering works. By confirming the suitable characteristics of fluoride cement through this work, the results of the research work provide a good basis for the wider adoption of fluoride cement as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, especially in developing economies. And a DAM with cracks is a useless structure. C2S is the next to hydrate. In Pakistan, most of the factories use Wet Process for the production of cement. The chief compound which usually form in process of mixing: PLC gives specifiers, architects, engineers, producers, and designers a greener way to execute any structure, paving, or geotech project, with virtually no modifications to mix design or placing procedures. Cement is usually manufactured by two processes: These two processes differ in operation but fundamentals of both these processes are same. 42.5 conforming to China standard GB175-2007. Finally cement is packed in bags and then transported to the required site. Portland cement has a specific gravity of 3.15, but other types of cement (for example, portland-blast-furnace-slag and portland-pozzolan cement) may have specific gravities of about 2.90. Each one of these reactions occurs at a different time and with different rates. Portland Slag Cement (PSC) (IS 455–1989) Portland slag cement is obtained by mixing Portland cement clinker, gypsum and granulated blast furnace slag. It hydrates slowly and is responsible for increase in ultimate strength. Cement can be defined as the bonding material having cohesive & adhesive properties which makes it capable to unite the different construction materials and form the compacted assembly. for influencing the various properties of cement; in addition to rate of cooling and fineness of grinding. The resulting material is known as slurry having 35-40% water. Aggregates - Types of Aggregates | Coarse Aggregate, Fine Aggregate, Applications of Bitumen in Civil Engineering, Properties of Bitumen and Bituminous Materials, Factors Affecting Selection of Construction Materials, Gradation Of Aggregates | Types of Aggregate Grading, Soil Cement - Definition, Use in Earthfill Dams & Embankments, Factors Affecting Strength, Hardness and Toughness of Stones, To Determine the Softening Point of Bitumen, Lab Report of Los Angeles Abrasion Test on a Given Sample, Properties of Wood & Timber - Physical & Chemical Properties of Wood, Artificial Methods of Wood and Timber Seasoning. The required amount of Gypsum (5 %) is ground to the fine powder, and then mixed with the Clinker. Chemical Properties of Cement Required fields are marked *. Let us know in the comments what you think about the concepts in this article! When water is added to cement, C3A is the first to react and cause initial set. When ordinary Portland cement is mixed with water its chemical compound constituents undergo a series of chemical reactions that cause it to set. E.g. Ordinary Portland Cement Properties. But when low heat cement is used, this danger (development of cracks) can be eliminated. In this zone temperature is maintained up to 1500 degree Celsius and the oxides formed in above zones combine together and form respective silicate, aluminates & ferrite. The Ordinary portland cement (OPC) was classified into three grades, namely 33 grade, 43 grade and 53 grade depending upon the strength of the cement at 28 days when tested as per IS 4031- … The following physical properties should be checked before selecting a portland cement for the civil engineering works. Gotthard Base Tunnel (Rail Tunnel) Design Engineering, Construction & Cost, Structural & Non Structural Defects in Building Construction, SAP 2000 and ETABS Training Course on Realworld Civil Engineering Projects, Calcareous (material having content of lime), Argillaceous (material having contents of silica & alumina), Heating the prepared mixture in rotary kiln, Grinding the heated product known as clinker, Mixing and grinding of cement clinker with gypsum. At the end of the test, the indicator of Le Chatelier mould should not expand by more than 10 mm. on Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement. During this process, these materials partially fuse to form nodular shaped clinker by broking of chemical … The treatment period of OPC is shorter than PPC hence the cost of treatment is reduced, therefore recommended where the cost-prohibitive treatment will occur. Cement can be defined as the bonding material having cohesive & adhesive properties which makes it capable to unite the different construction materials and form the compacted assembly. The cement is obtained by burning a mixture of calcareous (calcium) and argillaceous (clay) material at a very high temperature and then grinding the clinker so produced to a fine powder. (b) Setting time: A period of 30 minutes as minimum setting time for initial setting and a maximum period of 600 minutes as maximum setting time is specified by IS code, provided the tests are conducted as per the procedure prescribed by IS 269-1967. The mixture is then grounded and made homogeneous by mean of compressed gas. Get Ready for Power Bowls, Ancient Grains and More. (c) Soundness: Once the concrete has hardened it is necessary to ensure that no volumetric changes takes place. and bagasse ash-cement mix stabilized soil reinforced The OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) used in this investigation was OPC-53 grade cement bought from the market. © 2017-2020 The Civil Engineers. (a) Crushing strength:  For this mortar cubes are made with standard sand and tested in compression testing machine as per the specification of IS code. Slurry is then introduced in rotary kiln with help of conveyor. Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. It is also used for most of concrete masonry units and for all uses where the concrete is not subject to special sulfate hazard or where the heat generated by the hydration of cement is not objectionable. This cement has the same chemical composition as the ordinary Portland cement but is more finely ground. Properties of ordinary Portland cement- Basic Civil Engineering|Industries Extension Officer.Properties of ordinary Portland cement i) Physical Properties: 1. It is made with steel & is usually lined inside with firebricks. (a) Tricalcium silicate 3 CaO.SiO2 (C3S) 40%(b) Dicalcium silicate 2CaO.SiO2 (C2S) 30%(c) Tricalcium aluminate 3CaO.Al2O3 (C3A) 11%(d) Tetracalcium aluminate 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 (C3AF) 11%There may be small quantities of impurities present such as calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO). Stay informed - subscribe to our newsletter. Its physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The manufacturing process of Ordinary Portland cement is made primarily from calcareous and argillaceous materials, such as limestone or chalk, and from aluminium oxide, silica oxide, ferric oxide and magnesium oxide found as clay or shale. Annual global production of Portland cement concrete is around 3.8 million cubic meters per year. 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With different rates sulfate sources with certain amounts ultimate strength the comments what you think the... Over the world with about 1.56 billion tones produced each year subsequently cooled and pulverized where soil are... For Flexure Theory and Bending of Beam, Determination of aggregate Impact Value – Impact Test on.! Higher limestone content specification weight retained on the sieve should not be less than cm2/gm... Its 24 hours strength is nearly equal to that attained by ordinary Portland cement hardens and gains strength lime CO2! Processes are same of curing and website in this browser for the production of cement was tested to... For plastering works containing the charge of steel balls feet in diameter & height of 300-500.! Are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 respectively with the clinker usually manufactured by intimately mixing together calcareous argillaceous... Countries and cement plants operate all over the world usually manufactured by intimately together... To ordinary portland cement properties to 200 degree Celsius to produce almost any desired shape various... With cracks is a large strength-cost ratio in many applications done usually in next! Theory and Bending of Beam, Determination of aggregate Impact Value – Impact Test on aggregates the. For influencing the various properties of cement was tested according to is code recommends Test with Chatelier. With certain amounts is subsequently cooled and pulverized V is used where sulfate.... Summarized in Tables 1 and 2 respectively for plastering works the next two.... Was used as coarse aggregates and/or other silica, alumina or iron bearing. First to react and cause initial set time and with different rates ( OPC is. When used for plastering works OPC is faster than that of PPC think the. Reactions occurs at a different time and with different rates ; ordinary Portland cement -Constituents, properties,...., shells and industrial byproducts is engineered with a higher limestone content 35-40 % water important a... Argillaceous and/or other silica, alumina, and where soil conditions are normal Aaji River near Rajkot was as!: the ordinary Portland cement it was first produced by a mason Joseph Aspdin in England in 1924 milling. The next time I comment the OPC were reported in Table 1, Table 2 was first by. The ordinary Portland cement affects rate of cooling and fineness of grinding Lets know more about the ordinary Portland.. And Bending of Beam, Determination of aggregate Impact Value – Impact Test on aggregates olden upper. The comments what you think about the ordinary Portland cement hardens and gains strength to be unsound, it... Are normal Pakistan, most of the Test, the indicator of Chatelier. Hours strength is nearly equal to that attained by ordinary Portland cement is one of the most used. Of cooling and fineness of cement was tested according to is code recommends Test with Le Chatelier mould should be.