This is because FR diffuse and spread easily. GA downregulates Bcl-2 in PC12 cells through the combined effects of dietary phenolics and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on oxidative neuronal cell death [18]. GA at 2 μM did not exert any damaging effect on the embryos (Fig 1A and 1B, Table 1). Ochuko L. Erukainure, ... Md. An alternative cause is discussed in the following sections. The sizes of RBCs obtained from the various groups were similar; implying that in vivo lysis of erythrocytes is closely associated with the inherent properties of GA and not with osmolysis. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. In a previous study, GA-treated F344 rats exhibited significant body loss [21]. GA dose-responsively generates considerably more H2O2 in plain DMEM media than quercetin does [16, 23, 24], suggesting that GA is a stronger prooxidative antiproliferative than quercetin is regarding embryonic proliferation and differentiation. Gallic acid attenuated compound 48/80- or immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced histamine release from mast cells. The white blood cell (WBC), eosinophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts significantly decreased after the uptake of GA (p < 0.05). The autooxidation of GA produces large amounts of superoxide anions, hydroxyl free radicals, and hydrogen peroxide, which alternatively injures aortic smooth muscle cells (Reactions VIII and IX), which, in turn, accelerates more readily the destruction of carbonate homeostasis (Reaction X) and triggers (Reaction IV) the decomposition of transferrin-bicarbonate-iron complexes (Reaction V). Macrophages are phagocytic in function and play a fundamental role in the cellular nonspecific defence mechanism. The cause of mortality might be strong prooxidant bioactivity. mechanisms of primary antioxidant action of gallic acid (Scheme 1) and corresponding carboxylic anion (Scheme 2) in the gas-phase, benzene and water. To determine whether GA is potentially teratogenic and can induce hemorrhages, the CEM was adopted to conduct an in vivo study. GA was obtained from Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Osaka, Japan) as a yellowish–white crystalline powder with a purity of over 98%. The oxidative stress can be effectively neutralized by enhancing cellular defens… (A) Western blotting of the PPAR-α expression. To administer GA, the eggs were moved to a laminar flow chamber. The potential mechanisms of action of SmEE were also observed. Gallic acid and the three other primary hits that inhibited SP-mediated enhancement of HIV infection. The Neuroprotective Effects of Phenolic Acids: Molecular Mechanism of Action Dominik Szwajgier, Kamila Borowiec * and Katarzyna Pustelniak Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and the Science of Food Commodities, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin 20704, Poland; dszwajgier@hotmail.com (D.S. The total yield of gallic acid was 30% at 45 h in the case of tara tannin and 9.7% in the case of sumac tannin, in terms of raw material weight (Pourrat et al., 1987). 2 Citations (Scopus) Abstract. The membranes were then incubated for 16 h at 4oC with various primary antibodies. Gallic acid is immunostimulatory in function by enhancing the phagocytes and lymphocytes, the major innate immune cells. The minimum teratogenic dose (GA 6 μM), if administered to humans, corresponds to 1.02 mg/kg of body weight. Gallic acid is mainly used as a synthetic intermediate for the production of pyrogallol and gallic acid esters used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (Deschamps and Lebeault, 1984). Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) (GA), a polyphenolic compound, is extensively used in nutraceuticals because of its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties [1–5].GA exhibits renal protection against chronic kidney disease (CKD) [], and quercetin has raised warning to CKD if admitted to long-term administration []. The bonding of the hydroxyl groups in an ortho position results in a coplanar and bent configuration, which is favorable for antioxidative activities [52,53], A. Kumar, ... A.S. Levenson, in Medical Epigenetics, 2016. AU - Peng, Robert Y. PY - 2015/6/1. 133 - N° C - Article : 110985 - Gallic acid: Pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms involved in inflammation-related diseases - EM consulte Tannins are water-soluble polyphenols that are commonly found in higher herbaceous and woody plants.1 They can be classified into two categories: hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable (condensed). However, some polyphenols can simultaneously act as both scavengers and ROS forming agents [48]. Gallic acid is a well known antioxidant compounds which has neuroprotective actions in different models of neurodegeneration, neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. was found to be non-toxic, indicating the safety of gallic acid. The mechanism of action was investigated for inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis using an HPLC‐based assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. PLoS ONE 10(6): ); kasia.pustus@wp.pl (K.P.) Also, the suppressed levels of several critical proinflammatory mediators from RA FLS suggest that GA may offer a novel therapeutic or joint protection approach for the treatment of RA. Wrote the paper: CLH KCC RYP. Sustained activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can lead to cell cycle arrest in numerous cell lines [41]. In this study, the mechanism of action of gallic (GA) and ferulic (FA) acids, a hydroxybenzoic acid and a hydroxycinnamic acid, was assessed on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The western blot analysis revealed that the signal proteins gp130, leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR), growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), Ras, and STAT were all upregulated by GA in a dose-responsive manner (Fig 5B), implicating the signal transduction pathways of Ras/Raf-mediated-growth inhibition and differentiation. However, the proliferative marker PCNA has been suggested to be directly related with the proliferation [42], futher work will be conducted to confirm this aspect. Moreover, GA-induced cell death is not prevented by Boc-Asp-fmk (a pan-caspase inhibitor) [14], indicating that neither the intrinsic nor extrinsic mitochondrial pathways are involved in GA-induced teratogenicity and hemolysis. The teratogenic rates reach 33.3%, 39.4%, and 29.2% at GA doses of 6, 10, and 14 μM, respectively, involving 5.5%–10.5% of holohemolysis (not specifically shown, but involved in the malformation rate). Rabbit antibodies to cervical muscle tissue Ras (1:1000), Raf (1:1000), GRB2 (1:1000), LIFR (1:1000), gp130 (1:1000), STAT (1:1000), TNF-α (1:1000), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) (1:1000), and β-actin, and the secondary antibodies were provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Supporting Information. We treated the embryos with GA on day 2.5 after fertilization, and each subgroup was observed on days 5.5, 9.5, and 21 (day-1 chick, HH Stage 46), respectively. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. No, Is the Subject Area "Body weight" applicable to this article? We examined the malformation rate (including the hemorrhage rate), pathological changes of the cervical muscle, inflammatory cytokines affected, including TNF-α and IL-6, and antioxidative markers, including ROS and MDA. ... - and prooxidant properties however recently they have been described as potential anti-biofilm agents although their mechanisms of action on bacterial cells remain obscure. Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy - Vol. Previous studies have indicated that GA can be rapidly and nonenzymatically oxidized in vivo in physiological solutions (37°C, pH 7.4) to produce superoxide anions, H2O2 and GA quinones [31–33]. Distinct organs exhibited varying susceptibilities to GA. Because the decreases in body and organ weights occurred simultaneously in a dose-responsive manner, the organ weight related to body weight did not differ in the various treatment groups (Table 2). Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) (GA), a polyphenolic compound, is extensively used in nutraceuticals because of its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties [1–5]. Blood was collected for counting. The mechanism of action of GA is multidisciplinary: Liposis can be ascribed to the downregulation of PPAR-α; erythrocyte hemolysis can be attributed to the unique autooxidative prooxidant behavior of GA and the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase; and proliferation and differentiation deficits can be attributed to the upregulation of the Ras/Raf/JAK/STAT pathway. . AU - Hsieh, Chiu Lan. Aβ25–35, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-di-phenyl (MTT), Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (50%) was purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). The embryos were successively rinsed several times with PBS and deionized water (DW). No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516. Lonsane, in Advances in Applied Microbiology, 1997. Ellagic acid is a dimeric derivative of gallic acid occurring mostly in fruits and berries such as raspberries, strawberries, blackberries and pomegranates. GA increases ROS levels, including •O2-, induces GSH depletion, and inhibits the growth of lung cancer and normal cells [34]. TLC analysis was performed on glass plates (5×20 cm), coated with a 0.25 mm layer of RP-18 F254 (Merck 15683); the glass plates were pre-cleaned with a single development in methanol. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid in which the hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and 5. The diverse range of applications of this simple polyphenol is due to a fine amalgam between its antioxidant and prooxidant potential. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.t004. [40]. The transport of ferric ions (Fe3+) by transferrin requires a carbonate bridge (dissociation constant Kd = 10–22 M [25]) for the whole complex formation; therefore, the destruction of carbonate homeostasis (Reaction III) leads to negligible ferric ion transport (Reaction V). Fitzpatrick, T. Woldemariam, in Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III, 2017. The inhibitory effect of gallic acid on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of cAMP and … Orthoquinones formed by the loss of 2 electrons from pyrogallol and catechol (2 adjacent phenol groups) moieties can biochemically participate in enzymatic redox cycling reactions, which can produce superoxides and other ROS [50]. Upon heating, gallic acid is converted to pyrogallol or 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, which are used in laboratories for absorbing oxygen, and in the production of azo dyes and photographic developers. Gallic acid is utilized in the ink industry, dye industry, food industry (antioxidants and preservatives), and, most importantly, in the pharmaceutical industry (as a raw material for the production of the hallucinogenic alkaloid, mescaline, and trimethoprim, a broad-spectrum antibiotic). Gallic acid is found in the leaves of bearberry, in pomegranate root bark, gallnuts, witch hazel, sumac, tea leaves, oak bark, and many other plants, both in its free state and as part of the tannin molecule. Daily GA consumption was evaluated based on an assumed daily intake of 5 g of desiccated tea powder [9]. Additionally, the treatment of PC12 cells with GA results in the upregulation of phospho-JNK expression [17]. Data obtained in the same group were analyzed using a Student’s t test and SPSS 10.0 statistical software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Ras pathway was significantly upregulated, indicating that the transcription signaling pathway was severely affected. According to the data of Lin et al. The potential mechanisms of action of SmEE were also observed. While examining whether GA is effective in alleviating valproic-acid-induced teratogenesis in a chicken embryo model (CEM), we observed embryo hemorrhage and liposis in the musculi longissimus cervicis. GA at higher concentrations (e.g., 10 μM and 14 μM) induced severe RBC collapse and nuclear release (Fig 4). The most important dietary source of phenolic acids in all studied European countries was coffee (58–75%), and the most distributed phenolic acids were caffeoylquinic acids (mainly 5-caffeoylquinic, 4-caffeoylquinic and 3-caffeoylquinic acid), followed by feruloylquinic, gallic, galloylquinic, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, homovanillic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic and dihydro-p-coumaric acids . GA suppressed the levels of NO, PGE2, and IL-6 in LPS-induced activation of RAW264.7 cells.56 Another study showed that GA could inhibit the production of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by Fusobacterium nucleatum in human mouth epithelial cells as well as the growth of F. nucleatum, indicating that GA is a good candidate for controlling periodontal disease.57 In addition, it was reported that GA significantly decreased the cell viability of fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 2 Citations (Scopus) Abstract. Also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid has been reported in most plants. GA (but not quercetin) inhibits gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC; a carcinogenic phenomenon), which is only partially reduced by catalase [16]. We showed that GA dose dependently enhanced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, ROS and MDA (Table 2). The prevalence of embryonic hemolysis ranged from 5.5% to 10.5% (involved in the malformation rate, as shown in Table 1), underlying the potential of GA teratogenicity to occur at doses ≥ 6 μM, corresponding to 1.02 mg/kg. Gallic acid (GA), a polyphenol, is widely found in numerous fruits and vegetables, particularly in hickory nuts. Upper row: side view. With this proviso and by the use of the strict linearity range, the values obtained for gallic acid were 98±2.1% of those found by HPLC. The inhibition of carbonic anhydrase might disturb carbonate homeostasis and destroy the carbonate bridging ligand of the transferrin-carbonate-ferric ion complex (Kd = 10–22 M) [26, 27]. When we used the CEM to evaluate the antiteratogenic bioactivity of polyphenolic nutraceuticals, we observed severe hemolysis and accumulated liposis in the musculi longissimus cervicis, which occurred in a dose-responsive manner. These findings could pave the way for the development of functional compound from gallic acid–rich plants for mitigation of … https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.g005. Photos were taken after the embryos were carefully dried using tissues. No, Is the Subject Area "Embryos" applicable to this article? Gallic acid conjugated with gold nanoparticles: Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens. Studies demonstrated that grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibited AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells growth and migration in a dose-dependent manner through downregulation of miR-27a expression [346,349]. Photos of the whole chicks and the organs were taken. The GA dose required to induce teratogenesis was ≥ 6 μM (1.02 mg/kg), which can be easily consumed by pregnant women in typical teas such as Chinese Pu-’Er and Chinese black teas, indicating a potential risk to human fetuses. AU - Peng, Chiung Chi. Yes Similar trend was found for TNF-α, ROS and MDA (Table 2). The red blood cells were directly obtained from day-1 chicks treated with various gallic acid concentrations. Yes The trihydric phenols, gallic acid and ethyl gallate are effective stabilizers in animal and vegetable fats and enhance the antioxygenic activity of inhibitols; they thus demonstrate the properties of both phenolic and acid inhibitors. The protein content of lysate was determined according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Adefegha and Oboh [36] and Oboh et al. The mechanism of action of GA is multidisciplinary: The liposis can be ascribed to downregulation of PPAR-α; the erythrocyte hemolysis can be attributed to its unique autooxidative and prooxidant behavior and the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase; and the proliferation and differentiation deficits can be attributed to the upregulation of the Ras/Raf/JAK/STAT pathway. GA at concentrations of up to 12 μM did not inhibit the peroxidation of phospholipids in the liposomal system [35]. [37] reported its presence in the phenolic rich extract of C. volubile leaves. [20] and Liu et al. It is found both as a free state and as a constituent of tannins, namely, gallotannin. Magnification: ×40 (upper panel), ×400 (lower panel). Deschamps and Lebeault (1984) reported the production of gallic acid from tara tannin by using Klebsiella pneumoniae and Corynebacterium spp., where the yield of gallic acid was 55%. The death rate and malformed rate were calculated. here. A SYSMEX K-1000 Reader (San-Tong Instrument Co., Taipei, Taiwan) was used to read the optical density. * Correspondence: … Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. In a previous study, F344 rats administered GA (5 mM) exhibited a significant reduction of hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit level, and RBC count, and an increase of reticulocytes [21]. These eggs were divided into 5 groups, each containing 36 eggs: Group 1, PBS control; Group 2, 2 μM GA; Group 3, 6 μM GA; Group 4, 10 μM GA; and Group 5, 14 μM GA. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups, each containing 12 fertilized eggs. Cerebral hemolysis occurred early in day-5.5 (A) and more severely in day-9.5 embryos (B). Gallic acid is a very important common antioxidant tea formulation, known as an Ayurvedic herb. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.t003. The day-1 (HH Stage 46) chicks were collected. Ras protein regulates diverse cell behaviors and is involved in the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway of signal transduction [20]. In spleens, GA at 7 μM exhibited only an apparent weight-reducing effect (p < 0.05) (Table 2). Gallic acid has been found to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the mitochondria-mediated pathways and to show selective toxicity for cancer cells without harming normal cells.148 Gallic acid has also been reported to exhibit anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities in various cancer cells. The low yield was due to biodegradation of the gallic acid produced by these strains. Autoxidation of GA increases radical intensity and changes the redox potential to a more oxidative state [28, 29], leading to tremendous formation of semiquinone and superoxide (•O2-) radicals [23, 24]. The suppression ratios reached 1.00 (control), 0.98 (2 μM), 0.87 (6 μM), 0.02 (10 μM), and 0.02 (14 μM) (Fig 5A), indicating that the β-oxidation of fatty acid was also retarded in a dose-responsive manner; hence, a large amount of fat was accumulated in the musculi longissimus cervicis (Fig 2B). AU - Lin, Chien Hong. 2020 Sep 16;11:580208. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.580208. The extent of severity of edema and hemorrhage (A); and the scoring based on the degree of swelling and edema without hemorrhage (B). mechanism of action since they are tapped as promising pharmaceutical agents. The lysate-containing protein (50 μg) was heated at 100°C for 10 min before loading and separated on precast 7.5% SDS-PAGE. The embryos were then moved as close as possible to the holes by carefully turning the egg in front of a strong light source. All other reagents were purchased from Invitrogen (Invitrogen Life Technologies, CA, USA) unless otherwise stated. 101 2-Propenesulfenic acid is reported to be over 1000 times more reactive toward ˙OOH radicals than allicin (2.60 × 10 7 vs. 7.38 × 10 3 L mol −1 s −1, at 298 K). Following the extraction of gallic acid (e.g., by diethyl ether), these processes resulted in good yield of gallic acid (up to about 95% of available tannic acid), with a minimum energy input and probably more economical, as compared to the conventional industrial acid hydrolysis process. Although VSMCs are positive for in situ nick end-labeling (TUNEL), they do not exhibit a DNA ladder pattern in gel electrophoresis and are negative for Taq polymerase-based in situ ligation, which is more specific for apoptosis than for TUNEL. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.g004. Gallic acid derivatives have also been found in a number of phytomedicines with diverse biological and pharmacological activities, including radical scavenging, interfering with the cell signaling pathways and apoptosis of cancer cells. Cerebral hemorrhage can be at least partially attributed to the strong prooxidant characteristic of GA [16, 23, 24]. Membranes, blood vessel, yolk, and the action mechanism of action was investigated for augmentation the! Loss [ 21 ] in Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III, 2017 and tumor-cytotoxic activities in BT474 cancer! Hemorrhage can be the probable mechanism of this simple polyphenol is due to a benzene ring in vivo.! Retarded transport and reduction of ferric ions can be easily consumed by pregnant! In summary, a polyphenol, is the Subject Area `` embryos '' applicable to article. Discuss about the neuroprotective actions of gallic acid is a stronger prooxidant than [... 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