Most returned voluntarily, hungry and cold, back to friends and family, or were hunted down by parties of overseers and dogs. 2. History Origins. Palmares is thought to have been made up of a core of people from Angola, and they essentially created an African state in the Brazilian hinterland. Maroon community, a group of formerly enslaved Africans and their descendants who gained their freedom by fleeing chattel enslavement and running to the safety and cover of the remote mountains or the dense overgrown tropical terrains near the plantations. Columbus's discovery of Jamaica in 1494 began two centuries of Spanish rule. NAmE / / m@"ru:n d / / -ing form marooning. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Maroon can be produced with red+black meaning it is a shade of red. To survive, the American maroons reinvented themselves, defied slave society, enforced their own definition of freedom and dared create their own alternative to what the country had delineated as being black men and women's proper place. Some of the Jamaican and Suriname Maroon communities founded in the 18th century are still occupied by their descendants today. Such groups often raided colonial settlements and plantations for commodities and new recruits. Many communities blended ethnopharmacological knowledge from their homes in Africa with the locally available and indigenous plants. NAmE / / m@"ru:n IN / / jump to other results. a person who is marooned: Robinson Crusoe lived for years as a maroon. K. Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. Plantation workforces were made up mostly of enslaved men, and if there were women and children, the men were the ones who were best able to leave. Faced with monumentally hostile conditions, they tactically established armed settlements because they were in constant danger of being recaptured or killed by European tyrants. Great Dismal Swamp communities may have begun as early as 1765, but they had become numerous by 1786, after the end of the American revolution when the enslavers could pay attention to the problem. Patterns in Medicinal Plant Knowledge and Use in a Maroon Village in Suriname, : A Place of Convergence for Maroons and Amerindians in Suriname, SA. Evidence of their activities can be found in treaties with Indian nations, official correspondence, petitions, and in innumerable statutes and Acts. See more. The Spanish enslaved the native Arawaks, who quickly died out from the depridations of slave life and the diseases brought by the European conquerers. Pronunciation: (mu-rn'), — adj. maroon meaning: 1. a dark reddish-purple colour 2. having a dark reddish-purple colour: 3. to leave someone in a…. Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. The Maroons originated as a semi-pro football team known as the Toledo Athletic Association, in 1902.The Association formed the Toledo Maroons in 1906 as a farm team for teenagers who could later move up to playing for the Association's senior team. This book gives a great account of what life was like for maroons and the author debunks many of the myths that surround maroons and slavery. The phenomenon is known globally wherever slavery occurs. As a result, new Maroon communities were little more than camps with skewed demographics, mostly made up of men and a small number of women and very rarely children. Palmares was a constant thorn in the side of the Portuguese and Dutch colonials in Brazil, who waged war with the community for most of the 17th century. But the courageous resistance of the Maroons threatened this prosperous industry. They often mixed with indigenous peoples, eventually evolving into separate creole cultures such as the Garifuna and the Mascogos. a loudly exploding firework consisting of a cardboard container filled with gunpowder. Maroon societies were a significant form of African and African American resistance to enslavement. But perhaps the greatest threat to their survival was this: As the white planters began to expand their cultivable holdings, they began grabbing and clearing the thickly forested wilderness lands that many runaways called home, leading to the displacement and ultimate dissolution of many maroon communities on the smaller islands by the onset of the 18th century. The term “maroons” refers to people who escaped slavery to create independent groups and communities on the outskirts of slave societies. To this day, the Koromanti designation is commonly used by maroons to describe their rituals, languages, dances, and songs, which are sung to bury the dead and accompany healing rituals. Mestizo, any person of mixed blood. Cookies help us deliver our services. In the colonies that would become the United States, Maroon communities were most abundant in South Carolina, but they were also established in Virginia, North Carolina, and Alabama. To abandon or isolate with little hope of ready rescue or escape: The travelers were marooned by the blizzard. But some of those settlements eventually gained a balanced population, and flourished and grew. The following are common types of maroon. The size of Maroon communities varied widely. An African-style system of status, birthrights, enslavement, and royalty was developed at Palmares, and adapted traditional African ceremonial rites were performed. Maroon definition, dark brownish-red. After Florida became a U.S. territory in 1819, most headed to the North. Many reports, however, start the timeline at 1512, when a steady stream of enslaved Africans began escaping from Spanish and Portuguese slavers and “disappearing” into the hinterlands. Her work has appeared in scholarly publications such as Archaeology Online and Science. Navigation. In some regions and for some periods, the communities held treaties with other colonists and were recognized as legitimate, independent, and autonomous bodies with rights to their lands. 2. transitive verb [usu passive] If someone is marooned somewhere, they are left in a place that is difficult for them to escape from. ma•roon 2. maroons. Indeed, dozens of maroon wars and revolts are reflected in the historical record, with the first one in 1519–33, led by Enrique (Enriquillo) against the Spanish in Hispaniola. The Black Seminoles in Florida found refuge in central Florida swamps; the Saramaka Maroons of Suriname settled on riverbanks in deeply forested areas. It is also common for maroon colors to contain a tinge of brown or purple. Maroon definition: Something that is maroon is dark reddish-purple in colour. African-America is not exhausted in America — our Blackness is against the state, not expressed inside of it. At its apex, it was the home and refuge of some 20,000 African men, women, and children who had managed to escape the dreadful experience of plantation life. The English word Maroon comes from Spanish cimarr ó n, itself based on a Ta í no Indian root. In Cuba, villages made up of freedom seekers were known as palenques or mambises; and in Brazil, they were known as quilombo, magote, or mocambo. They appeared in all colonies where slavery was introduced and the struggle against them has been particularly well chronicled. Maroon towns nearly always had several security measures. Scholars generally distinguish two kinds of marronage, though there is overlap between them. Third-person singular simple present indicative form of maroon The English word Maroon comes from Spanish cimarrón, itself based on a Ta í no Indian root. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Maroon is considered a formal, sumptuous and classic color. The cabins that housed enslaved workers were located far from the plantation house, at the edges of the clearing and often immediately next to a forest or swamp. Several long-term American communities were created in Florida, Jamaica, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Suriname. Moreover, the history of maroon conflict with the state is a history that is not limited to maroons’ self-defense. There are two ways to answer this question. Buy The History of the Maroons, From Their Origin to the Establishment of Their Chief Tribe at Sierra Leone: Including the Expedition to Cuba for the ... of Jamaica for the Last Ten Years With a S by Dallas, Robert Charles (ISBN: 9780341813019) from Amazon's Book Store. He was marooned for a year in Jamaica. To survive, the American maroons reinvented themselves, defied slave society, enforced their own definition of freedom and dared create their own alternative to what the country had delineated as being black men and women’s proper place. Third-person singular simple present indicative form of maroon; Anagrams . The first is that it memorializes and pays tribute to one of their last visions of home, the West African coast of the same name that was traversed by the newly enslaved Africans en route to the ship that would transport them to the west. Even after they were set up, the embryonic Maroon towns had limited opportunities for building families. This entry looks at the origins of maroon communities in Africa, their history of struggle and revolt in the New World, and their contemporary representation. en.wiktionary.org. a similar firework used as a danger or warning signal, as by railway brakemen. In some countries—e.g., Ecuador—it has acquired social and cultural connotation; a pure-blooded Indian who has adopted European dress and customs is called a mestizo. Maroon definition: Something that is maroon is dark reddish-purple in colour. Long-term marronage communities were established in Brazil (Palmares, Ambrosio), Dominican Republic (Jose Leta), Florida (Pilaklikaha and Fort Mose), Jamaica (Bannytown, Accompong, and Seaman's Valley), and Suriname (Kumako). It is said that only their memory resides in Ghana. Most maroons had family members, (parents, siblings, children) and friends back on those same plantations whom they secretly visited. Learn more. 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