[6] The choice of This PR attempts to partially resolve issue #67 by stating that public key formats will be limited. It should be mentioned that there is precedent for converting keys between the two curves: Signal's XEd25519. In the signature schemes DSA and ECDSA, this nonce is traditionally generated randomly for each signature—and if the random number generator is ever broken and predictable when making a signature, the signature can leak the private key, as happened with the Sony PlayStation 3 firmware update signing key. RFC 4253, section 6.6 describes the format of OpenSSH public keys and following that RFC it’s quite easy to implement a parser and decode the various bits that comprise an OpenSSH public key. q {\displaystyle H'} For that I recommend Montgomery curves and their arithmetic by Craig Costello and Benjamin Smith, which is where I learned most of the underlying mechanics of Montgomery curves. is birationally equivalent to the Montgomery curve known as Curve25519. By the way, this all works because the basepoints of the Montgomery and Edwards curves are equivalent. At the same time, it also has good performance. It was developed by a team including Daniel J. Bernstein, Niels Duif, Tanja Lange, Peter Schwabe, and Bo-Yin Yang. They do the opposite of what we want to do though, they use an X25519 key for EdDSA. $\begingroup$ Keys are encoded in little-endian format, GnuPG being the only implementation I'm aware of that uses big-endian for Ed25519. {\displaystyle \ell } You'll actually need your public key in this format more often than the public key file you've saved directly from puttygen, such as when pasting your public key in GitLab. q ) Getting back to our use case, it turns out that it's pretty easy to use an Ed25519 public key for X25519, because an Ed25519 public key maps to a single X25519 public key, and the Ed25519 secret scalar will be one of the two valid X25519 private keys for that public key. You can learn more about multihash here.. Generally, to use keys, different from the native SHA-3 ed25519 keys, you will need to bring them to this format: To encrypt to them we'll have to choose between converting them to X25519 keys to do Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman, and devising our own Diffie-Hellman scheme that uses Ed25519 keys. It has also been approved in the draft of the FIPS 186-5 standard. To provide easy solution that would allow using different algorithms without “breaking” backward compatibility, we introduced multihash format for public keys in Iroha. [17], "Ed25519: high-speed high-security signatures", "PS3 hacked through poor cryptography implementation", "27th Chaos Communication Congress: Console Hacking 2010: PS3 Epic Fail", "FIPS 186-5 (Draft): Digital Signature Standard (DSS)", "eBACS: ECRYPT Benchmarking of Cryptographic Systems: SUPERCOP", "python/ed25519.py: the main subroutines", "wolfSSL Embedded SSL Library (formerly CyaSSL)", "Heuristic Algorithms and Distributed Computing", "Minisign: A dead simple tool to sign files and verify signatures", "Virgil Security Crypto Library for C: Library: Foundation", "Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=EdDSA&oldid=989281021#Ed25519, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "positive" coordinates are even coordinates (least significant bit is cleared), "negative" coordinates are odd coordinates (least significant bit is set). It also adds a suggestion for how RSA keys are expressed. Verification can be performed in batches of 64 signatures for even greater throughput. H {\displaystyle {\sqrt {\ell \pi /4}}} As security features, Ed25519 does not use branch operations and array indexing steps that depend on secret data, so as to defeat many side channel attacks. [16] In 2019 a draft version of the FIPS 186-5 standard included deterministic Ed25519 as an approved signature scheme. {\displaystyle E(\mathbb {F} _{q})} q Looks like libsodium already supports this kind of Ed25519 to Curve25519 conversion, which is great as it makes it easy for languages with libsodium bindings (most of them) to implement age, and it gets us something to test against. 9.2.1.1. = This type of keys may be used for user and host keys. Interestingly enough, the spec made a mistake and picked the wrong v coordinate for the Montgomery basepoint, so that the Montgomery basepoint maps to the negative of the Edwards basepoint. H I am creating some ssh keys using ed25519, something like: $ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 $ ssh-keygen -o -a 10 -t ed25519 $ ssh-keygen -o -a 100 -t ed25519 $ ssh-keygen -o -a 1000 -t ed25519 But I notice that the output of the public key is always the same size (80 characters): [17], Ed448 is the EdDSA signature scheme using SHAKE256 (SHA-3) and Curve448 defined in RFC 8032. . This library includes a copy of all the C code necessary. ( I recommend reading both section 2.3 of the XEdDSA spec and this StackExchange answer if things don't feel clear at this point. c The did:key Format. P.S. @Benjojo12 and I are building an encryption tool that will also support SSH keys as recipients, because everyone effectively already publishes their SSH public keys on GitHub. RSA keys are allowed to vary from 1024 bits on up. So that's what a X25519 public key is: a u coordinate on the Curve25519 Montgomery curve obtained by multiplying the basepoint by a secret scalar, which is the private key. The simplest way to generate a key pair is to run … RC F'13, F2'17. Similarly, not all the software solutions are supporting ed25519 right now – but SSH implementations in most modern Operating Systems certainly support it. That's because u coordinates are enough to do Diffie-Hellman (which is the core insight of Curve25519). First, we need to understand the difference between Ed25519 and X25519. The key > format of putty could have been a good candidate. However, there is only limited benefit aft… It is designed to be faster than existing digital signature schemes without sacrificing security. The "ssh-ed448" key format has the following encoding: string "ssh-ed448" string key [10][11][12] {\displaystyle H} EdDSA, the Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, supports this kind of Ed25519 to Curve25519 conversion, Cryptography + This example uses the Repair-AuthorizedKeyPermissions function in the OpenSSHUtils module which was previously installed on the … curve additions before it can compute a discrete logarithm,[5] so The signature scheme uses curve25519, and is about 20x to 30x faster than Certicom's secp256r1 and secp256k1 curves. On OS X or Linux, simply scp your id_ed25519.pub file to the server from a terminal window. Public Key Format The "ssh-ed25519" key format has the following encoding: string "ssh-ed25519" string key Here 'key' is the 32-octet public key described by , Section 5.1.5 [RFC8032]. In the PuTTY Key Generator window, click … (When you use the birational map, y coordinates map to u coordinates and vice-versa.) ℓ So y as an integer is (0xf7)*2^0 + (0x59)*2^8 ... (0x0d)*2^252 = 6059360325038685432335429159867106683431817502499950464645549794044379486711 and x = 33942739095931203280835016784239364197415773456702966128992901549564140435446 … Ed25519 is intended to provide attack resistance comparable to quality 128-bit symmetric ciphers. [8] Public keys are 256 bits in length and signatures are twice that size.[9]. To decrypt, we derive the secret scalar according to the Ed25519 spec, and simply use it as an X25519 private key in Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman. The exact method by which the recipient establishes the public EdDSA key candidate (s) to check the signature must be specified by the application's security protocol. What remains open for future work is checking for cross-protocol attacks. In public key cryptography, encryption and decryption are asymmetric. An Ed25519 public key instead is the compressed encoding of a (x, y) point on the Ed25519 Edwards curve obtained by multiplying the basepoint by a secret scalar derived from the private key. Even though DSA keys can still be made, being exactly 1024 bits in size, they are no longer recommended and should be avoided. The software takes only 273364 cycles to verify a signature on Intel's widely deployed Nehalem/Westmere lines of CPUs. OpenSSH 6.5 added support for Ed25519 as a public key type. An Ed25519 public key instead is the compressed encoding of a (x, y) point on the Ed25519 Edwards curve obtained by multiplying the basepoint by a secret scalar derived from the private key. OpenSSH can use public key cryptography for authentication. [1] , since by Hasse's theorem, Public Key Format The "ssh-ed25519" key format has the following encoding: string "ssh-ed25519" string key Here, 'key' is the 32-octet public key described in [RFC8032], Section 5.1.5. You will needPython 2.7 or Python 3.x (3.4 or later) and a C compiler. There is one catch though: you might have noticed that while we have both x and y coordinates for the Ed25519 public key, we only have the u coordinate for the X25519 key. 2 Cryptogopher on the Go team at Google. Private and public keys in Ed25519 are 32 bytes (not sure why you expect 64 for the private key). [29] OpenSSH 6.5 and later support a new, more secure format to encode your private key. Raw... ) >>> loaded_public_key = ed25519. Thus, once a private key is generated, EdDSA has no further need for a random number generator in order to make signatures, and there is no danger that a broken random number generator used to make a signature will reveal the private key. The same is true of y coordinates and the Edwards curve. Ed25519 and the new key format to support it represented a fair amount of new code in OpenSSH, so please try out a snapshot dated 20131207 or ... > key and a cleartext public key file, which can be confusing). Secure your SSH key: It is strongly advised to provide a passphrase when generating your SSH key pair to ensure its security. q Why ed25519 Key is a Good Idea. Public Keys¶. PublicFormat. ℓ The PuTTY keygen tool offers several other algorithms – DSA, ECDSA, Ed25519, and SSH-1 (RSA).. Like other discrete-log-based signature schemes, EdDSA uses a secret value called a nonce unique to each signature. is limited by the choice of It's fixed in an errata but no one cares about Montgomery v coordinates anyway. {\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {q}}} RFC8032 defines Ed25519 and says: An EdDSA private key is a b-bit string k. It then defines the value b as being 256 for Ed25519, i.e. That's why we can encode Ed25519 public keys as a y coordinate and a "sign" bit in place of the full x coordinate. Sign up to my newsletter—Cryptography To move the contents of your public key (~.ssh\id_ed25519.pub) into a text file called authorized_keys in ~.ssh\ on your server/host. generate >>> public_key = private_key. Comment your SSH key: It is strongly recommended to assign a comment to each of your SSH keys in order to differentiate them and thus allow an easier access revocation. It turns out it's fairly easy to reuse an Ed25519 key for X25519.I wrote a quick blog post explaining the difference between the two, and how you can convert from one to the other.https://t.co/ihMNdOoxGC. SSH key recommendations¶. is needed. Unlike OpenSSH public keys, however, there is no RFC document, which describes the binary format of private keys, which are generated by ssh-keygen(1) . Proposed resolution: Standardize on JWK (FormatA) and a per key type format as the only two supported key formats for at least RSA, secp256k1, secp256r1, ed25519, Curve25519. E Ed25519PublicKey. F {\displaystyle \#E(\mathbb {F} _{q})=2^{c}\ell } To encrypt, we take the y coordinate of the Ed25519 public key and we convert it to a Montgomery u coordinate, which we use as an X25519 public key for Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman. Typically you will want to select the entire contents of the box using the mouse, press Ctrl+C to copy it to the clipboard, and then paste the data into a PuTTY session which is already connected to the server. The Ed25519 public-key is compact. In public-key cryptography, Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) is a digital signature scheme using a variant of Schnorr signature based on twisted Edwards curves. (An Ed25519 private key is hashed to obtained two secrets, the first is the secret scalar, the other is used elsewhere in the signature scheme.) {\displaystyle \ell } The format for the did:key method conforms to the [[DID-CORE]] specification and is simple. For every valid u coordinate, there are two points on the Montgomery curve. (This performance measurement is for short messages; for very long messages, verification time is dominated by hashing time.) RFC 7748 conveniently provides the formulas to map (x, y) Ed25519 Edwards points to (u, v) Curve25519 Montgomery points and vice versa. [3], The following is a simplified description of EdDSA, ignoring details of encoding integers and curve points as bit strings; the full details are in the papers and RFC.[4][2][1]. Creating an SSH Key Pair for User Authentication. These parameters are common to all users of the EdDSA signature scheme. (PowerShell) Generate ed25519 Key and Save to PuTTY Format Generates an ED25519 key and saves to PuTTY format. {\displaystyle q} (It also comes with more issues due to not having the other secret that you derive from an EdDSA private key, but that's out of scope. Dispatches. ( Dispatches—for more frequent, lightly edited writings on cryptography. The ‘Public key for pasting into OpenSSH authorized_keys file’ gives the public-key data in the correct one-line format. Notable uses of Ed25519 include OpenSSH,[13] GnuPG[14] and various alternatives, and the signify tool by OpenBSD. Note: Previously, the private key password was encoded in an insecure way: only a single round of an MD5 hash. Points on the Edwards curve are usually referred to as (x, y), while points on the Montgomery curve are usually referred to as (u, v). q F It is using an elliptic curve signature scheme, which offers better security than ECDSA and DSA. It is designed to be faster than existing digital signature schemes without sacrificing security. ′ In the HashEdDSA variant, an additional collision-resistant hash function While the latter is a totally viable strategy—you can do Ephemeral-Static Diffie-Hellman on twisted Edwards curves—I wanted to reuse the X25519 codepath, so I opted for the former. / They solve it by defining the Edwards point sign bit to be 0, and then negating the Edwards secret scalar if it would generate a point with positive sign. 1 4 The main difference is that on Montgomery curves you can use the Montgomery ladder to do scalar multiplication of x coordinates, which is fast, constant time, and sufficient for Diffie-Hellman. ℓ Introduction Ed25519 is a public-key signature system with several attractive features: Fast single-signature verification. The only one that really concerns me is if a partial decryption oracle (where you can submit files to an endpoint and it will tell you if they decrypt successfully) allows generating an Ed25519 signature that can be used to log in to an SSH server. public_bytes (... encoding = serialization. The hash function That comes with an issue: an X25519 public key does not carry a v coordinate, so it can map to two Ed25519 keys. At least ONE format … public_key >>> public_bytes = public_key. In contrast, EdDSA chooses the nonce deterministically as the hash of a part of the private key and the message. Raw,... format = serialization. The "ssh-ed25519" key format has the following encoding: string "ssh-ed25519" string key Here 'key' is the 32-octet public key described by [RFC8032], Section 5.1.5. The security of the EdDSA signature scheme depends critically on the choices of parameters, except for the arbitrary choice of base point—for example, Pollard's rho algorithm for logarithms is expected to take approximately I can't see such an attack, but if you can, let me know on Twitter. Normally each user wishing to use SSH with public key authentication runs this once to create the authentication key in ~/.ssh/id_dsa, ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa, ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa_sk, ~/.ssh/id_ed25519, ~/.ssh/id_ed25519_sk or ~/.ssh/id_rsa. This format is the default since OpenSSH version 7.8.Ed25519 keys have always used the new encoding format. The tests are runautomatically against python 2.7, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, and pypy versions ofPython 2.7 and 3.6. To use the user key that was created above, the public key needs to be placed on the server into a text file called authorized_keysunder users\username.ssh.The OpenSSH tools include scp, which is a secure file-transfer utility, to help with this. ) A slow but concise alternate implementation, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 02:15. (Redirected from Ed25519) In public-key cryptography, Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) is a digital signature scheme using a variant of Schnorr signature based on twisted Edwards curves. Ed25519 keys, though, are specifically made to be used with EdDSA, the Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm. [15] Usage of Ed25519 in SSH protocol is being standardized. The equivalence is[2][7], The Bernstein team has optimized Ed25519 for the x86-64 Nehalem/Westmere processor family. E Public Key Format. The process outlined below will generate RSA keys, a classic and widely-used type of encryption algorithm. π SSH Secure Shell Key Authentication with PuTTY, Authentication Using SSH and PuTTY Generated ED25519 Keys SSH directory, convert the public key to SSH format, and add it in authorized keys; then, -i -f putty-generated-public-key.ppk > .ssh/id_ed25519.pub $ cat PuTTY doesn't natively support the private key format (.pem) generated by Amazon EC2. Hi there, I'm trying to fetch private repo as a dependency in GitHub Actions for an Elixir/Phoenix application. It only contains 68 characters, compared to RSA 3072 that has 544 characters. Ed25519 is a deterministic signature scheme using curve25519 by Daniel J. Bernstein, Niels Duif, Tanja Lange, Peter Schwabe and Bo-Yin Yang. You might know me as @FiloSottile. 2 The high level summary is that the twisted Edwards curve used by Ed25519 and the Montgomery curve used by X25519 are birationally equivalent: you can convert points from one to the other, and they behave the same way. must be large enough for this to be infeasible, and is typically taken to exceed 2200. I like the diagram in this blog post if you are curious.). If you require a different encryption algorithm, select the desired option under the Parameters heading before generating the key pair.. 1. {\displaystyle q+1} The keys are used in pairs, a public key to encrypt and a private key to decrypt. Some food for thoughts from_public_bytes (public_bytes) cannot differ from Ed25519PrivateKey. If we use the same secret scalar to calculate both an Ed25519 and an X25519 public key, we will get two points that are birationally equivalent, so we can convert from one to the other with the maps above. For an Elixir/Phoenix application the Montgomery curve encoding format Niels Duif, Tanja Lange, Peter Schwabe, and (... Key 9.2.1.1 but SSH implementations in most modern Operating Systems certainly support it a single of. Rsa keys are used in pairs, a classic and widely-used type of encryption algorithm, select desired... For how RSA keys, a public key for pasting into OpenSSH authorized_keys file ’ gives the public-key in... Or greater [ 13 ] GnuPG [ 14 ] and various alternatives and! An Ed25519 key and saves to PuTTY format Generates an Ed25519 key and to! 3.7, and Bo-Yin Yang below will generate RSA keys are encoded an! New encoding format ] it is designed to be faster than existing digital signature algorithm select., 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, and Bo-Yin Yang for cross-protocol.... ’ gives the public-key data in the HashEdDSA variant, an additional collision-resistant hash function H ′ \displaystyle! Every valid u coordinate, there are two points on the Montgomery curve are! Shake256 ( SHA-3 ) and Curve448 defined in RFC 8032 and DSA method... Scheme using SHAKE256 ( SHA-3 ) and a C compiler and Curve448 defined in RFC 8032 has also been in... Certicom 's secp256r1 and secp256k1 curves is precedent for converting keys between the two curves Signal. Similarly, not all the software takes only 273364 cycles to verify a signature on Intel 's widely Nehalem/Westmere. Can, let me know on Twitter advised to provide a passphrase when your... To provide attack resistance comparable to quality 128-bit symmetric ciphers 2020, at 02:15 ]! Desired option under the Parameters heading before generating the key > format of PuTTY could have been good... Eddsa 's security every valid u coordinate, there are two points on Montgomery! And Bo-Yin Yang 13 ] GnuPG [ 14 ] and various alternatives, and SSH-1 ( RSA..... And Edwards curves are equivalent $ keys are 256 bits in length and signatures are that... 'M aware of that uses big-endian for Ed25519 scheme using SHAKE256 ( SHA-3 ) and a C.... To fetch private repo as a random oracle in formal analyses of EdDSA security! Key ( ~.ssh\id_ed25519.pub ) into a text file called authorized_keys in ~.ssh\ on your server/host signatures for even throughput. Alternate implementation, this all works because the basepoints of the XEdDSA spec and this StackExchange answer if do! ~.Ssh\Id_Ed25519.Pub ) into a text file called authorized_keys in ~.ssh\ on your server/host the x86-64 Nehalem/Westmere family. Ecdsa keys for authenticating ′ { \displaystyle H ' } is normally modelled as a random in. 2020, at 02:15 a draft version of the FIPS 186-5 standard support. [ 15 ] Usage of Ed25519 to Curve25519 conversion, cryptography Dispatches it only contains 68,! [ 1 ] it has also been approved in the HashEdDSA variant, additional... More secure format to encode your private key is 256 bits ( == 32 bytes ) random oracle in analyses! Newsletter—Cryptography Dispatches—for more frequent, lightly edited writings on cryptography several other algorithms – DSA, ECDSA,,! Schwabe, and is simple move the contents of your public key,. Ssh implementations in most modern Operating Systems certainly support it ed25519 public key format ’ gives the public-key in... Generate RSA keys, ed25519 public key format, they use an X25519 key for EdDSA ofPython 2.7 and.! 2.7, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, and SSH-1 ( RSA ) Ed25519. Such an attack, but if you are curious. ) long messages, verification time is dominated hashing! I ca n't see such an attack, but if you are curious. ) a... Page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 02:15 u,. Most modern Operating Systems certainly support it in the draft of the EdDSA signature,... Key > format of PuTTY could have been a good candidate greater throughput in this blog post if are. Verification can be performed in batches of 64 signatures for even greater.... 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Works because the basepoints of the EdDSA signature scheme let me know on.... And Curve448 defined in RFC 8032, we need to understand the difference between Ed25519 and.. In formal analyses of EdDSA 's security allowed to vary from 1024 on... Key ( ~.ssh\id_ed25519.pub ) ed25519 public key format a text file called authorized_keys in ~.ssh\ on server/host. Page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 02:15 runautomatically against Python,! Of your public key ed25519 public key format EdDSA the way, this page was last edited on 18 November 2020, 02:15... To all users of the XEdDSA spec and this StackExchange answer if things do feel. ] GnuPG [ 14 ] and various alternatives, and pypy versions ofPython 2.7 3.6. More frequent, lightly edited writings on cryptography other algorithms – DSA ECDSA... Contains 68 characters, compared to RSA 3072 that has 544 characters uses big-endian for as. Up to my newsletter—Cryptography Dispatches—for more frequent, lightly edited writings on cryptography Parameters common! Be faster than Certicom 's secp256r1 and secp256k1 curves generating your SSH key:! True of y coordinates and the signify tool by OpenBSD into OpenSSH authorized_keys ’. Defined in RFC 8032 your server/host it was developed by a team including Daniel J. Bernstein, Duif! } is normally modelled as a random oracle in formal analyses of EdDSA 's security diagram this. Single-Signature verification is true of y coordinates map to u coordinates are enough to do though are. If things do n't feel clear at this point single round of an hash... Which is the core insight of Curve25519 ) the key pair to its! Y coordinates map to u coordinates and vice-versa. ) value called a unique... String `` ssh-ed448 '' string key 9.2.1.1 to each signature than ECDSA DSA! Signature schemes without sacrificing security also been approved in the draft of the EdDSA signature scheme using SHAKE256 SHA-3... Curves are equivalent attack, but if you can, let me know Twitter. Newsletter—Cryptography Dispatches—for more frequent, lightly edited writings on cryptography right now – but SSH implementations in most Operating... Cryptography Dispatches PuTTY could have been a good candidate to be faster than Certicom 's secp256r1 and curves... Good performance 128-bit symmetric ciphers the tests are runautomatically against Python 2.7, 3.4 3.5!, Ed448 is the default since OpenSSH version 7.8.Ed25519 keys have always used the new encoding format 16! Of that uses big-endian for Ed25519 and X25519 in public key to encrypt and a private key to.... The private key is 256 bits ( == 32 bytes ) keys may be used with EdDSA the. Dependency in GitHub Actions for an Elixir/Phoenix application Certicom 's secp256r1 and secp256k1 curves ( or... Following encoding: string `` ssh-ed448 '' string key 9.2.1.1 there is precedent for converting between. Duif, Tanja Lange, Peter Schwabe, and the signify tool by... [ 9 ] also adds a suggestion for how RSA keys are used in,., not all the software solutions are supporting Ed25519 right now – but SSH implementations most. Keys between the two curves: Signal 's XEd25519 encoding: string `` ssh-ed448 key. Md5 hash pairs, a classic and widely-used type of encryption algorithm not. U coordinates are enough to do though, are specifically made to be than! Signature schemes without sacrificing security, Tanja Lange, Peter Schwabe, the! Nehalem/Westmere processor family performed in batches of 64 signatures for even greater throughput PuTTY., [ 13 ] GnuPG [ 14 ] and various alternatives, and Bo-Yin.! Are expressed Bo-Yin Yang, y coordinates map to u coordinates are enough to do Diffie-Hellman ( is... The equivalence is [ 2 ] the reference implementation is public domain.. Which offers better security than ECDSA and DSA can, let me know on Twitter note:,. ) into a text file called authorized_keys in ~.ssh\ on your server/host key method conforms to the [ [ ]... An Elixir/Phoenix application reference implementation is public domain software signature algorithm and X25519 SHAKE256 ( )... ′ { \displaystyle H } is normally modelled as a public key for EdDSA domain software Nehalem/Westmere lines of.... Of PuTTY could have been a good candidate of your public key cryptography, encryption decryption... Equivalence is [ 2 ] [ 7 ], Ed448 is the EdDSA signature scheme using SHAKE256 SHA-3... First, we need to understand the difference between Ed25519 and X25519 features: Fast verification...